Difference Between Horizontal and Vertical Merger

In modern business, it is not uncommon to meet the practice when two companies merge into one to use each other’s resources and thereby increase their productivity. When the merger takes place, the companies become one, sharing their employees, assets, trade secrets, and much more. But there are two types of mergers, vertical and horizontal, and although they both involve combining two companies into one, they have their differences, and in this article, we will outline them.

What is a horizontal merger?

A horizontal merger is a type of merger where companies in the same industry merge for no financial gain, this transaction has almost nothing to do with money directly. It is done to increase its competitiveness on the market, expanding its customer base and increasing its market share.

There are a lot of examples of horizontal mergers in the history of business, and to better understand how horizontal mergers work, we can consider an example. In the early 2000s, two banks – JP Morgan and Chase Manhattan Bank – merged their operations, after which they became one of the six largest banking organizations.

What is a vertical merger?

A vertical merger implies the integration of two companies that, although they operate in the same industry, but are involved in different services or products in the supply chain to eventually market their final product. This type of merger, as a rule, is carried out to improve the efficiency of the company and increase the profit of the buying company.

Such a transaction does not directly increase the competitiveness of the company but increases its importance and influence, which may later lead to a decrease in competitiveness.  

An example of a vertical merger could be a company in the automotive industry or any other industry. If an automobile manufacturing company could merge with the companies that provide individual parts for automobiles, it would be able to control the price that other companies set for this or that product. Thus, the creation of each car would bring him increased profits. In a vertical merger, the more companies an entrepreneur can join, the better.

The main difference between the horizontal and vertical merger

Below we outline the main difference between horizontal and vertical mergers based on the following criteria:

  • Value

A horizontal merger implies the merger of two or more companies that are involved in the same activity, and maybe earlier were even competitors.

A vertical merger is the integration of companies that work in the same field but provide different services in the supply chain, after the merger they complement each other and each has an advantage

  • The nature of the companies involved

In the case of a horizontal merger, all the companies must work in the same field and provide the same services, so that after the merger, there is an expansion of the company which entails the merger of two market shares of these companies into one

In the second case, the companies must necessarily provide different services and products, but must nonetheless operate in the same industry.

  • Purposes

Horizontal mergers occur when companies want to increase their credibility in the market and expand their customer base

The purpose of a vertical merger is to increase profits, reduce costs, and improve company performance

  • Benefits

In a horizontal merger the synergies occur, the resources of the company are merged into one and as a result, the companies have the opportunity to innovate, scale the business together and expand the customer base.

The advantage of the vertical merger is an increase in quality of the production and considerable economy on expenses.

Password Protect Csv File Creating Guide

The type of files separated by the .csv symbol usually contains a large amount of confidential company data, such as customer contact information or financial data. That is why such files require special attention and proper protection. You can secure your .csv files using either a password or a more secure method of encryption, and in this article, we will describe how to do both successfully.

How to protect .csv files manually?

Below, we will outline the detailed instructions on how to set a password on .csv files manually. So, to do this, you need to:

  • Find a particular CSV file that you want to protect with a password. It is usually saved in a folder on your Windows PC
  • Click on the file you wish to protect with the right mouse button
  • Among all the options that will open in front of you choose “send” and then select the form in which the file will be sent, namely “compressed folder”
  • The file will be compressed, wait a while until the process is complete
  • Then double-click on the already compressed file
  • In the menu of your PC, select the option “file”
  • After that, click on “add a password”
  • Then you will instantly get a new window with a line where you can type in the password you want for the file
  • Then you have to enter the password again to confirm it and click “ok”

How to protect the .csv file with the program?

If you do not know and do not want to understand everything yourself, certain programs can help you with this. To install a password protect CSV file using a program, you will first need to determine what kind of program it is. We would recommend you use Spotmau PowerSuite.

  • Download and install Spotmau PowerSuite on your computer
  • Open the program and find the “Privacy Kit” tab, which is on the left side of the column
  • In the new window you will see an option to “add a file”, click on it and select the .csv file that you want to password protect
  • You will still need to think up and enter a password, and then confirm it by typing again
  • Name the .csv file you want to save it under or leave it as is
  • Confirm all the changes by pressing the “ok” button.

How to encrypt .csv files?

While a password is already a definite security measure, for some of your files you may need something much more, especially if you plan to share those files, and encryption can provide that.

However, you should know that there is no way to encrypt a .csv file directly because they are simple text and you cannot just apply functions to them. So, to encrypt .csv files, you need:

Compress the file into a zip archive. Once you have zipped the file you can click on it and select the option “additionally” and then select the checkbox. With this checkbox, it becomes possible to encrypt the content and add a password to it. This applies to Windows users.

On the Mac operating system, things are a little more complicated with this. You have to use the Terminal to do this. It is not as complicated as it may seem at first glance, you just have to open up the program and type in the following:

  • cd (the folder in which you want to save your file)
  • zip -er (file name, including the “.zip” extension)
  • Type in a password of your choice

Box Virtual Data Room: Pros & Cons

Virtual Data Rooms is a handy program that provides a secure space to store and share documents which also provides additional features to optimize your business processes, but still, all vendors have their characteristics and directions according to which they select their target audience. In this article, we will talk about Box Virtual Data Room and the features it provides. We will highlight the main features, as well as the pros and cons.

Box Virtual Data Room – Overview

Box used to provide features for the general public on the Internet, allowing you to store and share your data in your space, so now when we use it, we can see some similarities to Google Drive or any other cloud space. But as it has evolved and improved, Box has evolved into what we now call a virtual data room.

Though it’s not focused solely on VDR services, it provides such an option on its list of services. The company was formed as we know it now back in 2005, and now provides features to simplify the company’s work and cooperation. Clients who have found Box VDR to be their ideal solution come from a variety of industries: non-profit, financial services, government agencies, health care.

The main features of Box Virtual Data Room

The main purpose of box virtual data room is to streamline and simplify collaboration between companies around the world, erasing the boundaries of the distance between them and improving communication and collaboration, even remotely. The provider is also open to innovations and is happy to provide them to its customers, and with 20 service centers worldwide, the company is ready to provide immediate and efficient support service. So, the main features of Box VDR are:

  • Constant backups – your data will always be intact, even if any threat or problem occurs, you can always restore the latest copy of your data
  • Audit Trail – provides the VDR administrator with a report on all the activities that take place within the space
  • Remote access and management – The flexibility of the space has no time, location, or device restrictions. You can do your work at home, on the road, or anywhere else where there is internet access
  • Encryption – The data room uses state-of-the-art 256-bit encryption to protect your data from leaks, both during communications and at rest
  • Communications – discuss important issues regarding your transactions in a secure environment
  • Task management – you can assign tasks to your employees right in the space, create separate rooms for projects and monitor the progress of the tasks
  • Document editing-edit a document in the space and it automatically syncs with its version on your desktop or elsewhere
  • Document conversion -when you upload and organize your documents, you don’t need to waste time formatting documents into the type that suits the space, it does it for you
  • Logo settings -the program interface offers you a customizable display that you can customize to match your company’s branding and logo

Pros and cons of BOX VDR

Like all software, Box provider has its pros and cons and now we will highlight the main ones.


  • Ability to learn how to use, webinars
  • It is supported by mobile applications of any mobile OS
  • There is a desktop version for Mac and Windows
  • Support is available at any time of the day and night
  • Attractive price and 14-day free trial
  • Tools to create watermarks


  • Linux OS is not supported
  • Does not provide the ability to control all users of the space
  • Has file size limitations, depending on your plan